§29-12A-5. Immunities from liability.

(a) A political subdivision is immune from liability if a loss or claim results from:

(1) Legislative or quasi-legislative functions;

(2) Judicial, quasi-judicial or prosecutorial functions;

(3) Execution or enforcement of the lawful orders of any court;

(4) Adoption or failure to adopt a law, including, but not limited to, any statute, charter provision, ordinance, resolution, rule, regulation or written policy;

(5) Civil disobedience, riot, insurrection or rebellion or the failure to provide, or the method of providing, police, law enforcement or fire protection;

(6) Snow or ice conditions or temporary or natural conditions on any public way or other public place due to weather conditions, unless the condition is affirmatively caused by the negligent act of a political subdivision;

(7) Natural conditions of unimproved property of the political subdivision;

(8) Assessment or collection of taxes lawfully imposed or special assessments, license or registration fees or other fees or charges imposed by law;

(9) Licensing powers or functions including, but not limited to, the issuance, denial, suspension or revocation of or failure or refusal to issue, deny, suspend or revoke any permit, license, certificate, approval, order or similar authority;

(10) Inspection powers or functions, including failure to make an inspection, or making an inadequate inspection, of any property, real or personal, to determine whether the property complies with or violates any law or contains a hazard to health or safety;

(11) Any claim covered by any worker's compensation law or any employer's liability law;

(12) Misrepresentation, if unintentional;

(13) Any court-ordered or administratively approved work release or treatment or rehabilitation program;

(14) Provision, equipping, lawful operation or maintenance of any prison, jail or correctional facility, or injuries resulting from the parole or escape of a prisoner;

(15) Any claim or action based on the theory of manufacturer's products liability or breach of warranty or merchantability or fitness for a specific purpose, either expressed or implied;

(16) The operation of dumps, sanitary landfills, and facilities where conducted directly by a political subdivision; or

(17) The issuance of revenue bonds or the refusal to issue revenue bonds.

(b) An employee of a political subdivision is immune from liability unless one of the following applies;

(1) His or her acts or omissions were manifestly outside the scope of employment or official responsibilities;

(2) His or her acts or omissions were with malicious purpose, in bad faith, or in a wanton or reckless manner; or

(3) Liability is expressly imposed upon the employee by a provision of this code.

(c) The immunity conferred upon an employee by subsection (b) of this section does not affect or limit any liability of a political subdivision for an act or omission of the employee.

Bill History For §29-12A-5

1986 First Special Session
Senate Bill 3