§3-1-5. Voting precincts and places established; number of voters in precincts; precinct map; municipal map.
(a) The precinct is the basic territorial election unit. The county commission shall divide each magisterial district of the county into election precincts, shall number the precincts, shall determine and establish the boundaries thereof and shall designate one voting place in each precinct, which place shall be established as nearly as possible at the point most convenient for the voters of the precinct. Each magisterial district shall contain at least one voting precinct and each precinct shall have but one voting place therein.
Each precinct within any urban center shall contain not less than three hundred nor more than one thousand five hundred registered voters. Each precinct in a rural or less thickly settled area shall contain not less than two hundred nor more than seven hundred registered voters. A county commission may permit the establishment or retention of a precinct less than the minimum numbers allowed in this subsection upon making a written finding that to do otherwise would cause undue hardship to the voters. If, at any time the number of registered voters exceeds the maximum number specified, the county commission shall rearrange the precincts within the political division so that the new precincts each contain a number of registered voters within the designated limits: Provided, That any precincts with polling places that are within a one mile radius of each other on or after July 1, 2014, may be consolidated, at the discretion of the county clerk and county commission into one or more new precincts that contain not more than three thousand registered voters in any urban center, nor more than one thousand five hundred registered voters in a rural or less thickly settled area: Provided, however, That no precincts may be consolidated pursuant to this section if the consolidation would create a geographical barrier or path of travel between voters in a precinct and their proposed new polling place that would create an undue hardship to voters of any current precinct.
If a county commission fails to rearrange the precincts as required, any qualified voter of the county may apply for a writ of mandamus to compel the performance of this duty: Provided, That when in the discretion of the county commission, there is only one place convenient to vote within the precinct and when there are more than seven hundred registered voters within the existing precinct, the county commission may designate two or more precincts with the same geographic boundaries and which have voting places located within the same building. The county commission shall designate alphabetically the voters who are eligible to vote in each precinct so created. Each precinct shall be operated separately and independently with separate voting booths, ballot boxes, election commissioners and clerks, and whenever possible, in separate rooms. No two precincts may use the same standard receiving board, except as permitted by the provisions of §3-1-30(j) of this code.
(b) In order to facilitate the conduct of local and special elections and the use of election registration records therein, precinct boundaries shall be established to coincide with the boundaries of any municipality of the county and with the wards or other geographical districts of the municipality except in instances where found by the county commission to be wholly impracticable so to do. Governing bodies of all municipalities shall provide accurate and current maps of their boundaries to the clerk of any county commission of a county in which any portion of the municipality is located.
(c) To facilitate the federal and state redistricting process, precinct boundaries shall be comprised of intersecting geographic physical features or municipal boundaries recognized by the U. S. Census Bureau. For purposes of this subsection, geographic physical features include streets, roads, streams, creeks, rivers, railroad tracks and mountain ridge lines. The county commission of every county shall modify precinct boundaries to follow geographic physical features or municipal boundaries and submit changes to the Joint Committee on Government and Finance by June 30, 2007, and by June 30, every ten calendar years thereafter. The county commission shall also submit precinct boundary details to the U.S. Census Bureau upon request.
(d) The county commission shall keep available at all times during business hours in the courthouse at a place convenient for public inspection a map or maps of the county and municipalities with the current boundaries of all precincts.